Saturday morning thoughts on the evolutionary history of IBD in Eastern European Jews

Of course, as is usual with me on the weekend, I started reading all my open tabs in my browser. And the first one I read was a paper where they crossed two pure strains of mice and correlated microbiome and genome. Link: PLoS ONE: Murine Gut Microbiota Is Defined by Host Genetics and Modulates […]

Another article on “Patterns of Early Gut Colonization Shape Future Immune Responses of the Host” in PLoS ONE

“In conclusion, a time window exists that enables the artificial colonization of GF mice by a single oral dose of caecal content, which may modify the future immune phenotype of the host. Moreover, delayed microbial colonization of the gut causes permanent changes in the immune system.” Ok. So there’s mounting evidence that rapid colonization of […]

Gut microbes and immunity: The hygiene hypothesis, peak antibiotics, and the post-Pasteurian Age

“Exposure to microbes during early childhood is associated with protection from immune-mediated diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and asthma. Here, we show that, in germ-free (GF) mice, invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells accumulate in the colonic lamina propria and lung, resulting in increased morbidity in models of IBD and allergic asthma compared […]

The Impact of a Consortium of Fermented Milk Strains on the Gut Microbiome of Gnotobiotic Mice and Monozygotic Twins

“The results also showed that (i) consumption of an FMP containing five bacterial strains was not associated with a statistically significant change in the proportional representation of resident community members within and between individuals; (ii) the appearance and disappearance of strains comprising the FMP consortium did not exhibit familial patterns in the fecal microbiota; and […]

A human gut microbial gene catalogue established by metagenomic sequencing : Nature

“Beyond providing the global view of the human gut microbiome, the extensive gene catalogue we have established enables future studies of association of the microbial genes with human phenotypes and, even more broadly, human living habits, taking into account the environment, including diet, from birth to old age. We anticipate that these studies will lead […]

Influence of Milk-Feeding Type and Genetic Risk of Developing Coeliac Disease on Intestinal Microbiota of Infants: The PROFICEL Study

“This study demonstrates that the milk-feeding type and the HLA-DQ genotype differently influence the bacterial colonization pattern of the newborn intestine during the first 4 months of life and, therefore, could also influence the risk of developing CD in later life. Breast-feeding reduced the genotype-related differences in microbiota composition, which could partly explain the protective […]

PLoS Biology: How Bacteria Turn Fiber into Food

“Now, a new study by Eric Martens, David Bolam, and colleagues has looked into how a pair of the most common species of gut bacteria metabolize polysaccharides, showing that each bacterium is highly specialized. Using a high-throughput system for feeding the bacteria dozens of kinds of carbohydrates, one at a time, and tracking the bacteria’s […]

Trend: Probiotics, and a commentary

When I lived in the US in the 90s, it was hard to find live-culture yogurt in supermarkets (you could find them in natural food stores, of course). The only one I could find was Stonyfield yogurt. When I lived in Finland, not only were there a bunch of live-culture milk products, but there was […]

Fortify your poop – Transfaunation

As you know, I’m always looking for practical uses of microbes. One that I stumbled upon a long while back was “transfaunation”, or, seeding one person’s gut with microbes from another’s. Yes, transfering poop microbes from one to another. Be an adult. Don’t get grossed out. I’ve read some great papers on the process how […]

Viral infection: The gut microbiota: friend or foe? : Nature Reviews Microbiology

“We normally think of the gut microbiota as the ‘friendly’ bacteria that carry out many beneficial functions, including protecting us from infection. But two studies now identify a different side to the gut microbiota, showing that it can actually facilitate viral infection and promote transmission.” Another interesting review that is in a CLOSED ACCESS paper. […]